Argentina is a country in South America bordering Chile, Bolivia, Paraguay, Brazil and Uruguay. The republic has its origins in the Spanish Viceroyalty of Rio de la Plata before fighting an independence war from 1810 until 1818. It took another few decades before a centralised government was accepted by all provinces. Mass immigration from especially Italy at the end of the 19th century gave Argentina its distinct culture in Latin America. The political and economic challenges of the 20th century caused many bouts of inflation and are reflected in the many types of Argentine coins. Currency reforms took place in 1881, 1970, 1983, 1985 and 1992.