Colonial Australia is a term used to describe the Australian continent during the period between 1788 to 1901 when Australia was under British colonial authority. Australia’s first people arrived around 42,000 and 48,000 years ago from Southeast Asia. The modern decedents of these people are called Indigenous Australians or Aboriginals. The first Europeans to discover and make landfall were the Dutch in 1606 and named the continent New Holland. In 1770 Captain James Cook sailed and mapped the east coast which he claimed for Great Britten and named New South Wales. On the 26 January 1788 Captain Arthur Philip landed in New South Wales with the First Fleet and established a penal colony at Sydney Cove, Port Jackson. The first colony of New South Wales was establish in January of 1788 with the arrival of the First Fleet. The British colony of New South Wales comprised of the ester half of the continent with the western half rating the name New Holland. Van Diemen's Land (renamed Tasmania in 1856), South Australia, New Zealand, Victoria and Queensland all separated from New South Wales and formed their own self-governing colonies in 1825, 1834, 1841, 1851 and 1859 respectively. In 1832 the Swan River colony was established which latter changed its name to Western Australia. On 1 January 1901, the six colonies (excluding New Zealand) federated, forming the Commonwealth of Australia.
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