Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and other smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area. The neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea, Indonesia and East Timor to the north; the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu to the north-east; and New Zealand to the south-east. Australia's capital is Canberra. Australia is a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy with Queen Elizabeth II as its head of state. Australia’s first people arrived around 42,000 and 48,000 years ago from Southeast Asia. The modern decedents of these people are called Indigenous Australians or Aboriginals. The first Europeans to discover and make landfall were the Dutch in 1606 and named the continent New Holland. In 1770 Captain James Cook sailed and mapped the east coast which he claimed for Great Britten and named New South Wales. On the 26 January 1788 Captain Arthur Philip landed in New South Wales with the First Fleet and established a penal colony at Sydney Cove, Port Jackson. On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated, forming the Commonwealth of Australia.
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