Coins from the Carolingian Empire

The Carolingian Empire, which stretched from Western to Central Europe, was the result of the territorial expansion of the Frankish kingdoms under the influence of the Carolingian dynasty during Early Middle Ages. Money had fallen into deep disrepute under the last Merovingian kings, notably by the coexistence of gold and silver coins minted by private moneyers without centralized guarantee as to their real value. When Pepin the Short, founder of the Carolingian dynasty, came to power in 751, he fought against monetary anarchy by imposing the silver standard and abolishing the monopoly of money. The son of Pepin the Short, Charlemagne, introduced a new evolution in 781 by giving a forced rate to the currency (240 Deniers per Carolingian pound), this in order to promote cash exchanges and put an end to barter. The king was crowned emperor by Pope Leo III in 800, which introduced into coinage new types with imperial bust, reminiscent of Roman coinage. Monetary legislation continued to change, in particular to institute the royal monopoly on the mints: Charlemagne really created the Carolingian currency and extended it to the whole of Europe. In 814, his son Louis the Pious continued this policy, adding a new division, the Obol, worth half a Denier. This empire was finally divided between the grandsons of Charlemagne in 843, after the death of Louis the Pious in 840, which gave rise to West Francia, East Francia and Middle Francia in between.

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Pound (751-843)

From 754 to 777 : 12 Deniers = 1 Sou • 22 Solidi = 1 Pound ; After 777 : 2 Obols = 1 Denier • 12 Deniers = 1 Solidus • 20 Solidi = 1 Carolingian Pound

Obol - Pepin the Short (Trier mint)
(751-768)

Silver • 0.6 g
Morrison# 4, Depeyr Car# 1061, N# 390115
Obol - Pepin the Short
(751-768)

Silver • 0.56 g
Nouchy# –, Prou Car# –, Gariel Car# –, N# 115064
Obol uniface anonymous (Melle mint; Mandq¿q)
(768-771)

Silver • 0.52 g • ⌀ 15 mm
Depeyr Car# –, Prou Car# –, Nouchy# –, Gariel Car# –, N# 348622
Obol uniface anonymous (Melle mint; mEDO¿VS)
(768-793)

Silver • 0.52 g • ⌀ 15 mm
Depeyr Car# 602, Prou Mer# 678, Belfort# 2890-2891, Gariel Car# VIII/92-93 var., N# 348617
Obol - Louis I (Toulouse mint; City gate)
(814-818)

Silver • 0.70 g
Morrison# 418, Nouchy# 67 (p. 103), Gariel Car# XIX/129-130, Prou Car# 804, N# 343566
Obol - Louis I (Arles mint; City gate)
(814-818)

Silver • 0.70 g
Prou Car# –, Nouchy# 13 (p. 89), Gariel Car# XV/32, Morrison# 438, Chwartz# 93, Depeyr Car# 60, N# 346220
Obol - Louis I (Melle mint; minting tools)
(814-818)

Silver • 0.85 g
Prou Car# 714, Morrison# 397, Nouchy# 33 (p. 94), Gariel Car# XVII/76, PA# LII/8, N# 343655
Obol - Louis I (Aachen mint)
(818-823)

Silver • 0.64 g • ⌀ 16 mm
Depeyr Car# 10, Gariel Car# XVI/53, Morrison# 329, N# 380101
Obol - Louis I (Melle mint; crosses)
(818-823)

Silver • 0.81 g • ⌀ 15 mm
Depeyr Car# XIV/8-9 ; XVI/71-72, PA# LII/9, Nouchy# 35 (p. 94), Morrison# 401-405, N# 339185
Obol - Louis I (Sens mint)
(818-823)

Silver • 0.80 g
Morrison# 377, Nouchy# 62 (p. 102), Gariel Car# XVIII/118, Prou Car# 568, N# 343593
Obol - Louis I (Arles mint)
(818-823)

Silver • 0.83 g
Nouchy# 16 (p. 90), Gariel Car# XIV/23-24; XV/25-26, Morrison# 440-443, Prou Car# 860, Depeyr Car# 62, N# 343790
Obol - Louis I (Narbonne mint)
(818-823)

Silver • 0.79 g
Nouchy# 43 (p. 96), Gariel Car# XVII/86-87, Morrison# 431-432, Prou Car# 837-839, N# 343646
Obol - Louis I (Rouen mint)
(818-823)

Silver • 0.70 g • ⌀ 16.5 mm
Prou Car# –, Nouchy# 59 (p. 101), Gariel Car# XVIII/115, Morrison# 365, N# 343602
Obol - Louis I (Toulouse mint)
(818-823)

Silver • 0.68 g • ⌀ 16 mm
Prou Car# –, MEC I# I, 784, Nouchy# 70 (p. 104), Morrison# 422-423, Gariel Car# XIX/127, N# 346247
Obol - Louis I (Quentovic mint)
(818-823)

Silver • 0.78 g • ⌀ 15 mm
Prou Car# 186, Morrison# 349-350, Gariel Car# XVIII/102, Nouchy# 53 (p. 99), N# 343641
Obol - Louis I (Tours mint)
(818-823)

Silver • 0.85 g
Prou Car# 448, Morrison# 367, Gariel Car# XIX/132, Nouchy# 75 (p. 105), N# 343559
Obol - Louis I (Christian legend; crosses)
(823)

Silver • 0.54 g
Nouchy# 9 (p. 88), Gariel Car# XLV/50-52, Morrison# 509-513, Prou Car# 1043-1047, N# 343805
Obol - Louis I (christian legend)
(823-840)

Silver • 0.86 g • ⌀ 16 mm
Nouchy# 7 (p. 87), Morrison# 473, Gariel Car# XLIV/43-47, Prou Car# 1005 ; 1019-1024 ; 1033 ; 1043-1047, N# 156440
Denier - Pepin the Short (Melle mint)
(751-754)

Silver • 1.0 g • ⌀ 14 mm
Belfort# 6649, N# 392258
Denier - Pepin the Short (Zurich mint)
(751-768)

Silver • 1.10 g • ⌀ 17 mm
Morrison# 29, Gariel Car# I/29, Prou Car# –, Depeyr Car# 1161, N# 346009
Denier - Pepin the Short (Maastricht mint)
(751-768)

Silver • 1.29 g • ⌀ 18 mm
Nouchy# –, Gariel Car# II/39, Morrison# 33, Depeyr Car# 540, N# 345998
Denier - Pepin the Short (Mainz mint)
(751-768)

Silver • 1.29 g • ⌀ 18 mm
Nouchy# –, Gariel Car# II/41, Morrison# 66, Depeyr Car# 572, N# 345869
Denier - Pepin the Short (Thionville mint)
(751-768)

Silver • 1.29 g • ⌀ 13.3 mm
Nouchy# –, Morrison# –, Gariel Car# –, Prou Car# –, Depeyr Car# –, N# 339564
Denier - Pepin the Short (Trier mint)
(751-768)

Silver • 0.94 g • ⌀ 13 mm
Nouchy# –, Gariel Car# –, Morrison# –, Depeyr Car# –, N# 345871
Denier in the name of Lambert (Reims mint)
(751-768)

Silver • 1.29 g • ⌀ 17 mm
Nouchy# –, Gariel Car# III/56, Morrison# 15, Prou Car# –, Depeyr Car# 826, N# 345932
Denier - Pepin the Short (Dorestad mint; RxF)
(751-768)

Silver • 1.33 g • ⌀ 17 mm
Nouchy# 1 (p. 17), Morrison# 25-27; 30-31, Gariel Car# I/7-16, Prou Car# 980, MEC I# I, 719, N# 339565
Denier - Pepin the Short (royal alms)
(751-768)

Silver • 1.35 g • ⌀ 17 mm
Nouchy# 3 (p. 17), Gariel Car# I/17, Morrison# 53, Depeyr Car# 47, Prou Car# –, N# 345917
Denier - Pepin the Short (Saint Fermin church of Amiens)
(751-768)

Silver • 1.18 g • ⌀ 17 mm
Nouchy# 4 (p. 18), Morrison# 10 ; 51, Gariel Car# III/62-63, Prou Car# 227, Depeyr Car# 35, N# 338400
Denier - Pepin the Short (Saint-Denis mint)
(751-768)

Silver • 1.09 g • ⌀ 16.5 mm
Nouchy# 6 (p. 18), Morrison# 47, Gariel Car# I/2-4, Prou Car# 2-4, MEC I# I, 720, N# 338401
Denier - Pepin the Short (Saint Germanus abbey of Auxerre)
(751-768)

Silver • 0.88 g • ⌀ 17 mm
Nouchy# 8 (p. 19), Gariel Car# III/65, Morrison# 75, Prou Car# –, Depeyr Car# 235b, N# 345982
Denier - Pepin the Short (Besancon mint)
(751-768)

Silver • 1.32 g • ⌀ 16 mm
Nouchy# 10 (p. 20), Gariel Car# I/18, Morrison# 80, Depeyr Car# 143, Prou Car# –, N# 345882
Denier - Pepin the Short (Brioux mint)
(751-768)

Silver • 1.18 g
Nouchy# 11 (p. 20), Gariel Car# IV/78, Morrison# 34, Depeyr Car# 1204, N# 338567
Denier - Pepin the Short (Cambrai mint)
(751-768)

Silver • 1.1 g • ⌀ 19 mm
Nouchy# 12 (p. 20), Morrison# 2, Gariel Car# I/19, N# 194142
Denier - Pepin the Short (Saint Gaugericus abbey of Cambrai)
(751-768)

Silver • 1.16 g • ⌀ 17 mm
Nouchy# 13 (p. 21), Gariel Car# III/64, Morrison# 74, Prou Car# –, Depeyr Car# 235, N# 345991
Denier - Pepin the Short (Saint Cyricus abbey of Clermont)
(751-768)

Silver • 1.26 g • ⌀ 17 mm
Nouchy# 20 (p. 23), Gariel Car# III/58, Morrison# 73, Prou Car# 927, Depeyr Car# 337, N# 345984
Denier - Pepin the Short (Saint Stephen abbey of Dijon)
(751-768)

Silver • 1.28 g • ⌀ 18 mm
Nouchy# 23 (p. 24), Gariel Car# III/61, Morrison# 77, Prou Car# –, Depeyr Car# 212, N# 345870
Denier - Pepin the Short (Saint Mary church of Laon)
(751-768)

Silver • 1.18 g • ⌀ 15 mm
Nouchy# 25 (p. 25), Gariel Car# III/71, Morrison# 13, Prou Car# –, Depeyr Car# 492, N# 346007
Denier - Pepin the Short (Meaux mint)
(751-768)

Silver • 0.90 g • ⌀ 17 mm
Nouchy# 29 (p. 26), Gariel Car# II/42, Morrison# 61, Prou Car# –, Depeyr Car# 590, N# 345921
Denier - Pepin the Short (Noyon mint)
(751-768)

Silver • 0.98 g • ⌀ 15 mm
Nouchy# 35 (p. 28), Gariel Car# III/49, Morrison# 14, Depeyr Car# 711, Prou Car# –, N# 345872
Denier - Pepin the Short (Paris mint)
(751-768)

Silver • 1.26 g
Nouchy# 36 (p. 28), Gariel Car# III/50, Morrison# 35, Prou Car# 315, N# 328399
Denier - Pepin the Short (Quentovic mint)
(751-768)

Silver • 1.12 g
Nouchy# 37 (p. 29), Gariel Car# III/51-54, Morrison# 69, N# 328396
Denier - Pepin the Short (Reims mint; RxF)
(751-768)

Silver • 0.80 g
Nouchy# 38 (p. 29), Gariel Car# –, Morrison# –, Prou Car# –, N# 346013
Denier - Pepin the Short (Reims mint; RP)
(751-768)

Silver • 1.17 g • ⌀ 18 mm
Nouchy# 39 (p. 29), Morrison# 70, Gariel Car# III/55, Prou Car# 926, Depeyr Car# 825, N# 339353
Denier - Pepin the Short (Saint Martin abbey of Tours; RxF)
(751-768)

Silver • 1.19 g • ⌀ 17 mm
Nouchy# 44 (p. 31), Gariel Car# III/66, Morrison# 76a, Prou Car# –, Depeyr Car# 1047, N# 346006
Denier - Pepin the Short (Saint Martin abbey of Tours; PIPI REX)
(751-768)

Silver • 0.85 g
Nouchy# 45 (p. 31), Gariel Car# III/68-69, Morrison# 19-20, Prou Car# 439, N# 346012
Denier - Pepin the Short (Amiens mint)
(751-768)

Silver • 1.02 g
Prou Car# –, Nouchy# –, Gariel Car# –, Morrison# –, Chwartz# 50, N# 346023
Denier - Pepin the Short (Arles mint)
(751-768)

Silver • 1.08 g • ⌀ 17 mm
Prou Car# –, Nouchy# 7 (p. 19), Gariel Car# I/6, Morrison# 56, Depeyr Car# 52, N# 345881
Denier - Pepin the Short (Dax mint)
(751-768)

Silver • 0.69 g
Prou Car# –, Nouchy# –, Gariel Car# –, Morrison# –, Chwartz# 53, N# 346022
Denier - Pepin the Short (GADDO)
(751-768)

Silver • 1.13 g
Prou Car# 5, Morrison# 55, Depeyr Car# 440, Gariel Car# II/28, N# 390181

The Numista referee for coins of this issuer is Compendium.

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