The Carolingian dynasty founded a unified currency facilitating the development of trade in Europe. The Carolingian pound worth 20 Sols and therefore 240 silver Deniers, is the pillar of the monetary system that will last until the French revolution. But from the 9th century, the Carolingian Empire was subject to internal and external pressures that favored the emergence of local feudal powers. Each lordship took the opportunity to mint coins, causing a certain monetary disorder for several centuries. The accession to power of Hugh Capet marked a turning point. He and his successors Louis VI, Philip Augustus and Saint Louis, imposed the royal coinage, gradually buying back the monetary rights of the feudal lords. In 1641, Louis XIII created the Louis d'Or and reintroduced the silver Ecu and the copper Liard. After 1789, coinage did not escape the revolutionary phenomenon: in 1792, coins bearing the effigy of Louis XVI were replaced by the Sol aux Balances. Then the Franc reappears (the first "Franc à Cheval" and "Franc à Pied" were minted from the 14th century), with a fixed weight and decimal subdivisions. Napoleon then introduced the gold 40F and 20F and their subdivisions, all types that would go through the restoration and revolutions until the First World War. In the interwar period, in a context of general collapse of the economy, the Franc was devalued several times. In 1960, De Gaulle created the New Franc as part of European integration and its new monetary system. Finally, the Euro replaced the Franc on July 1st, 2002.
The Numista referee for coins of this issuer is Compendium.
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