The Italian States section of the catalogue represents the mass of states covering the Italian peninsula, its Islands, and in some cases their non-Italian colonies that span the time period from the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD to the unification of Italy that was finalised with the fall of the Papal States in 1870. Over this period, hundreds of cities, states and other coin issuing entities emerged, some for their own account, and others as part of larger groups such as the Holy Roman Empire, the Papal States, or the Venetian Republic. These entities produced coins under numerous different monetary systems, many, though not all inheriting names from Roman coinage. Stylistically, most Italian States coins share common language, Latin, transitioning to Italian and its dialects around the 12-13th centuries. However, some coins from the Venetian region issued for its colonies may bear Greek alphabets, and others from Pre-Norman Conquest southern Italy and Sicily bear Arabic or Arabic and Italian inscriptions. Common themes for coin designs include religious imagery, ruling families' crests, and legendary events. Given such a wide field, unrecorded Italian States coins are to this day a common find. Neither the so-called "Bible" of such coins, King Victor Emmanuel III's Corpus Nummorum Italicorum (CNI), a 20 volume masterpiece dating back to the turn of the 20th century, nor the Monete Italiane Regionali (MIR), a contemporary attempt by researchers to recreate Victor Emmanuel III's feat are to be considered complete.
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