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In 959, Lotharingia, a vast kingdom with a European dimension, was split into two distinct duchies: Lower Lotharingia and Upper Lotharingia, which becomes simply Lorraine. Lower Lotharingia, also called Lothier, stretches from the Scheldt to the Ems and from the North Sea to the southern tip of the province of Cologne. It was Bruno of Cologne who proceeded to partition and gave Lower Lotharingia to Godfrey I. The title of Duke of Lower Lotharingia formally existed until 1190. Some of its holders became very powerful, such as Gothelo I who even managed to reconstitute Lotharingia for a time by reuniting in the middle of the 11th century the two duchies under his control. The last holder was Godfrey VII, Landgrave of Brabant from 1143. The former Carolingian counties have meanwhile become hereditary feudal entities (counties of Hainaut and Namur, duchies of Brabant, Luxembourg and Bouillon, princely abbey of Stavelot-Malmedy). The cities, which have multiplied, the countryside and the monasteries have also experienced a significant boom in a Meuse region that practices metallurgy and coal mining, and despite Norman and Hungarian attacks.
The Numista referee for coins of this issuer is Compendium.
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