The Mint of Lisbon has been in continuous operation since at least the end of the 13th century. The current Mint of Lisbon, Impresa Nacional - Casa de la Moeda (INCM), formed on 4 July 1972, as a result of the merging of Imprensa Nacional (The National Printing Office) and Casa da Moeda (The Mint). It is owned by the Portuguese Government and subordinated to the Portuguese Ministry of Finance. It is located in Lisbon, in the São Mamede (Santo António) neighborhood. INCM produces legal tender coins and banknotes, medals, passports, subway tokens, postage stamps and other security prints.
First Mint of Lisbon (Porta da Cruz, 13th-14th century)
The first documented mention of the mint dates from the reign of King Denis of Portugal (1261-1325). It is very likely that the mint was located near Porta da Cruz, in Santa Apolónia.
Second Mint of Lisbon (Limoeiro, 14th century)
In the fourteenth century, the mint was moved to the place that later became Limoeiro's prison, near Lisbon Cathedral.
Third Mint of Lisbon (Church of Nossa Senhora da Oliveira, 14th-15th century)
During the reign of King John I of Portugal (1385-1433), the Mint was relocated in front of the Church of Nossa Senhora da Oliveira.
Fourth Mint of Lisbon (Calcetaria Street, 15th century - 1720)
In the mid 15th century, the Mint was transferred west, to Calcetaria Street, close to Paço da Ribeira, where it remained until 1720.
King Manuel I of Portugal (1469–1521) introduced the first known statute of the mint in 1498, which established the organisation of the mint. The responsible of the mint was the Tesoureiro (Treasurer), and the officers of the mint were two Juízes da Balança (Judges of the Scale), later called Mestres (Masters), a Escrivão (Register), two Ensaiadores (Testers), two Fundidores (Smelters), an Abridor de cunhos (Opener of Dies), two Guardas da fornaça (Guards of the furnace), a Comprador (purchaser), three Salvadores (Rescuers), an Alcaide (Warden), a Vedor (Assayer), and 104 moedeiros (coiners).
Until 1678, the coins were minted by hand hammering: a blank piece of metal, called planchet, was set on a fixed bottom die, called the anvil die, and was hammered with a hand-held die, called trussel. The screw press was introduced by the mint after 1678.
King Peter II of Portugal (1648-1706) revised the minting legislation in 1686. The new law, Regimento que S. Magestade que Deos Guarde Manda Observar na Casa da Moeda created the office of Provedor (Provider) as head of the institution.
Fifth Mint of Lisbon (São Paulo Street, 1720-1941)
On 12 September 1720, the equipment and safebox of the Mint of Lisbon were transferred to São Paulo Street, on the site of Junta do Comércio Geral (General Trade Board), where a new mint building had been edified. The Mint of Lisbon acquired in 1835 one of the first steam engines in the country to power the minting press. The press, bought from the English manufacturer Boulton and Watt, was identical to the press used by the Royal Mint in London. More powerful presses were acquired in 1866 from the Ulhorn company.
On 28 July 1845, the Repartição do Papel Selado (the Department of Sealed Documents) merged with the Mint. The two institutions came under the same general administration, and the Mint was renamed to Casa da Moeda e Papel Selado. In 1853, postage stamps were introduced in Portugal, and were produced by the Casa da Moeda e Papel Selado.
In 1882, the Assay Office became subject to the General Administration of the mint. Since then, the mint has overseen the industry and trade of jewellery in Portugal.
Sixth Mint of Lisbon (São Mamede, 1941-date)
In the twentieth century, the Mint of Lisbon was successively restructured in 1911, 1920, 1929 and 1938. In 1941, it moved in the São Mamede (Santo António) neighborhood, to its current building, designed by architect Jorge Segurado.
The current Mint of Lisbon, Impresa Nacional - Casa de la Moeda (INCM), formed on 4 July 1972, as a result of the merging of Imprensa Nacional (The National Printing Office) and Casa da Moeda (The Mint).
• História da Casa da Moeda, retrieved 9 August 2020 from the Impresa Nacional Casa da Moeda website; •Imprensa Nacional-Casa da Moeda, retrieved 9 August 2020 from Wikipedia.