At the beginning of the 14th century, the decline of the Sultanate of Rum led to the emergence of many principalities in Anatolia. The most remarkable of them was born following the conquest of Mocadene by Osman I: in 1299, the Ottoman Beylik was born.
The Ottomans will continue their expansion in Asia Minor and the Balkans to the detriment of the Byzantine Empire in the West and the Karamanids in the East: in 1335, the capital moved from Bursa to Edirne and kept this status until the taking of Constantinople, which led to the end of Byzantine civilization in 1453 during the reign of Mehmed II. From this date, several eyalets led by pashas will be created to govern the different provinces of the country. From then on, the Empire prospered thanks to its total control over the Black Sea, the slave trade and the Silk Road.
The decisive victory of Selim Ist at the Battle of Ridaniya in 1517 brought about the end of the Mamluk Sultanate and allowed the Empire to expand on the Maghreb while moving the center of the Islamic Caliphate to Constantinople. The victories of his son, Suleiman the Magnificent, shook Europe as the Empire continued to expand in the East. The akçe, traditional silver currency, is then replaced in the southern and eastern territories by larger modules, the medini and dirham.
The Empire is at its peak, but finds itself wedged between the Vasa, Habsburg and Russians in the North, the British Empire in the West and the Safavids in the East. During this phase of stagnation, the akçe suffers many devaluations and will gradually disappear at the end of the 17th century in favor of the para which will become, with the kurus, the new standard.
The decline began in the 19th century with the loss of all its territories in Europe following the advance of the Russian front and the independence of some provinces in the Balkans.
The final coup de grace will be carried to the end of the First World War: the victory of the allies bringing the occupation then the partition of the territory in various states.
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