Peru is a country in western South America occupying more than one million square kilometers. Known for harboring the heart of the Inca Empire, the largest empire in pre-Columbian America, he became a possession of the Spanish Empire under the name of Viceroyalty of Peru. Independent since 1821, Peru is currently a member of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Forum and the Andean Community of Nations. Peru has very varied landscapes of high mountain, sand desert, equatorial forest and highlands that allow it to rank in the top 17 countries with the highest biological diversity in the world. From a numismatic point of view, the first Peruvian coins appeared with the arrival of the Spaniards under the name of "real" before being demonetized in favor of "sol de oro" at the end of the 19th century. After a brief change of currency for the "inti" between the 80s and 90s, the "nuevo sol" became the official currency of Peru, renamed "sol" in 2016.