|Issuer||British East Indies|
|Type||Standard circulation coin|
|Value||3 Kepings (3⁄400)|
|Currency||Sumatra - Dollar (1783-1824)|
|Orientation||Coin alignment ↑↓|
William D. Craig; 1976. Coins of the World, 1750-1850 (3rd edition). Western Publishing, Racine, Wisconsin, United States.KM# 259.1,
Tracy L. Schmidt (editor); 2019. Standard Catalog of World Coins / 2001-Date (14th edition). Krause Publications, Stevens Point, Wisconsin, United States.Singh# C.23
And 5 more volumes.
Saran Singh; 1986. The encyclopaedia of the coins of Malaysia, Singapore, and Brunei, 1400-1986. Malaysia Numismatic Society, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Balemark of the Company consisting of the Scottish Mason's 'Sign of Four' atop a heart with the company's initials within; date split by rosette below.
V E I C
17 ✿ 86
Unabridged legend: V(nited) E(ast) I(ndies) C(ompany)
Arabic numbers and Jawi script denomination.
Reeding slanted right
© James Martin
The 1, 2 and 3 Kepings were manufactured by Matthew Boulton from 1786; they are significant in the history of coinage, and industry, because they are the first numismatic products that incorporated the use of James Watt's steam engine, the basis of the first Industrial Revolution.
Steam was used to pump water back up onto a traditional water driven rolling press that created the copper sheets from ingots. Steam was also used to help cut the planchets, but the coins themselves were made in London using a traditional screw press.
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