1 Cash - Anonymous Kaiyuan Tongbao; with crescent


Issuer Empire of China
Ruling authority Tang dynasty › Anonymous (621-907)
Type Standard circulation coin
Years 621-907
Value 1 Cash (1)
Currency Cash (621-1912)
Composition Bronze
Weight 4.18 g
Diameter 25 mm
Thickness 1.4 mm
Shape Round with a square hole
Technique Cast
Orientation Medal alignment ↑↑
Demonetized Yes
Number N# 46041
Numista type number (https://numista.com)
References Hartill# 14.1u-ag
David Hartill; 2017. Cast Chinese Coins (2nd edition). New Generation Publishing, London, United Kingdom.


Four Chinese ideograms read top to bottom, right to left.

Script: Chinese (traditional, clerical script)

寶 通

Kai Yuan Tong Bao
Inaugural currency

Designer: Ouyang Xun

Ouyang Xun (557–641) was a Chinese calligrapher, politician, and writer of the early Tang Dynasty. He was born in Hunan, Changsha, to a family of government officials; and died in modern Anhui province. He notably wrote the inscription of the Kaiyuan Tongbao cash coin which became one of the most influential coins in Chinese history, this coin also influenced the calligraphic styles of other coinages in Japan, Sogdia, and Vietnam.


At least one crescent at various locations.




Danzhou, modern-day Yichuan County, Shaanxi, China
Ezhou, modern-day Wuhan, Hubei, China
Fuzhou, Fujian, China
Guangzhou, Guangdong, China
Guiyang Inspectorate, modern-day Guiyang County, Hunan, China
Guizhou, modern-day Guilin, Guangxi, China
Hongzhou, modern-day Nanchang, Jiangxi, China
Jingzhao, modern-day Xi’an, Shaanxi, China
Jingzhou, Hubei, China
Lantian, modern-day Lantian County, Shaanxi, China
Liangzhou, modern-day Nanzheng District, Shaanxi, China
Luozhou, modern-day Luoyang, Henan, China
Pingzhou, modern-day Lulong County, Hebei, China
Runzhou, modern-day Dantu District, Jiangsu, China
Tanzhou, modern-day Changsha, Hunan, China
Xiangzhou, modern-day Xianfeng County, Hubei, China
Xingzhou, modern-day Lueyang County, Shaanxi, China
Xuanzhou, modern-day Xuancheng, Anhui, China
Yangzhou, Jiangsu, China
Yanzhou, modern-day Yanzhou District, Shandong, China
Yizhou, modern-day Chengdu, Sichuan, China
Yongzhou, modern-day Lingling District, Hunan, China
Yuezhou, modern-day Shaoxing, Zhejiang, China
Zizhou, modern-day Santai County, Sichuan, China


Three main types exist:

  • Early types (621-718): the middle section of Kai (開) does not touch the top of the hole.
  • Middle types (718-732): the middle section of Kai does touch the top of the hole, and the two horizontal strokes of Bao (寶) do not touch the vertical lines.
  • Late type (732-907): the middle section of Kai does touch the top of the hole, and the two horizontal strokes of Bao usually touch the vertical lines (and these examples are typically cruder).

Hundreds of reverse varieties exist, including various position of lines, dots, and crescents. Hartill gives the following reverse varieties (indicated by letters), with each letter variety being applicable to each Hartill number:

Various examples
Early type:

© Beast Coins

Middle type:

© ollisaarinen

Late type:

See also

Manage my collection

Please sign in or create an account to manage your collection.

Date VG F VF XF AU UNC Frequency
ND (621-718)  9% Hartill#14.01: Early type; regular size (around 25mm)
ND (621-718)  0% Hartill#14.02: Early type; larger size (around 26mm)
ND (718-732)  1.5% Hartill#14.03: Middle type; no shoulders on 元 (Yuan)
ND (718-732)  10% Hartill#14.04: Middle type; left shoulder on 元 (Yuan)
ND (718-732)  0% Hartill#14.05: Middle type; right shoulder on 元 (Yuan)
ND (732-907)  8% Hartill#14.06-07: Late type; no shoulders on 元 (Yuan)
ND (732-907)  $ 2.28 81% Hartill#14.08: Late type; left shoulder on 元 (Yuan)
ND (732-907)  3% Hartill#14.09: Late type; right shoulder on 元 (Yuan)
ND (732-907)  0.7% Hartill#14.12: Late type; dot to the left of 元 (Yuan)
ND (732-907)  1.5% Hartill#14.13: Late type; dot to the right of 元 (Yuan)

Values in the table above are expressed in USD. They are based on evaluations by Numista users and sales realized on Internet platforms. They serve as an indication only; they are not intended to be relied upon for buying, selling or exchanging. Numista does not buy or sell coins or banknotes.

Frequencies show the percentage of Numista users who own each year or variety among all the users who own this coin. Since some users own several versions, the sum may be greater than 100%.

Get this coin

Members from this site want to exchange it: Codiv, m_hori, bevi75, Sleepybird, be.hanoi, LCW1991

Feedback: 5/55/55/55/55/5 (×130)
Country: Netherlands
Languages: English Dutch
Feedback: 5/55/55/55/55/5 (×33)
Country: Japan
Languages: English Japanese
Feedback: 5/55/55/55/55/5 (×170)
Country: Italy
Languages: English Spanish Italian
Feedback: 5/55/55/55/55/5 (×49)
Country: New Zealand
Languages: English Chinese
Feedback: 5/55/55/55/55/5 (×80)
Country: Vietnam
Languages: English Vietnamese
Feedback: 5/55/55/55/55/5 (×88)
Country: Hong Kong
Languages: English Chinese

» See the details of the coins available for swap

Numista Rarity index: 42 Search tips
This index is based on the data of Numista members collections. It ranges from 0 to 100, 0 meaning a very common coin or banknote and 100 meaning a rare coin or banknote among Numista members.

» Buy coins from the Empire of China

Contribute to the catalogue

Modify or add data on this page
Register a past auction sale