|Country||Livonia and Estonia (Russia)|
|Type||Standard circulation coin|
|Value||96 Kopecks = 1 Livonese (1)|
Tracy L. Schmidt (editor); 2019. Standard Catalog of World Coins / 2001-Date (14th edition). Krause Publications, Stevens Point, Wisconsin, USA.Fed# 1076,
And 4 more volumes.
Dmitry Yakovlevich Fedorov; 1966. Монеты Прибалтики XIII-XVIII столетий : Coin Identifier = Coins of the Baltic States of 17th - 18th centuries / Определитель монет. Valgus, Tallin, Estonia.Haljak II# 1753,
Gunnar Haljak, Antti Haljak; 2010. Livonian Coins / Part I. Feudal States : Livonian Coins from XIII-XVI Century : XIII-XVIII Century. self-published, Tallin, Estonia.Bit# 627,
And 1 more volumes.
Vladimir Bitkin; 2003. Сводный Каталог Монет России / Часть I. 1699-1740 = Composite catalogue of Russian Coins / Volume 1. 1699-1740. Yunona-Moneta, Kiev, Ukraine.Uzd# 4226
And 1 more volumes.
Vasilij V. Uzdenikov; 1992. Монеты России 1700-1917 = Russian Coins 1700-1917. Mezhnumizmatika, Moscow, Russia.
Bust facing right and surrounded by legend.
Lettering: ELISABETHA · I · D · G · IMP · TOT · ROSS ·
Elisabetha I Dei Gratia Imperatrix Totum Russorum
Elizaveta I, with God's grace, Empress of all Russia
Double-headed Russian eagles carrying Livonian and Estonian shields, all surrounded by legend.
MONETA · LIVOESTHONICA · 1757
Coin of Livoestonika
Cinquefoil and globe.
After the capitulation of the Swedish dominions of Livonia and Estonia to the Russians, while the two areas were supposed to adopt Russia's currency, both areas continued to use their Thaler-based ones, relying mainly on foreign coins to supply themselves. In response, Russia introduced the Livonese, which was basically the Russian version of the Thaler, with 1 Livonese equal to 96 Kopecks. Even so, the coins were tedious to ship, and it was later realized that 1 Livonese should have actually been equal to 109 Kopecks, so the minting of these pieces did not last long. For the most part, Livoestonika continued to use foreign coins until 1846, when Russia banned the use of foreign coins.
Novodels (official restrikes) exist, which all used the 1757 reverse die. Some restrikes use different obverse dies and edge styles, which are the ones easy to tell apart; however, those that use the same obverse die and same edge style are a little more difficult to differentiate. On the official coins, the tip of the bust's crown should point between 'D G' of the legend. On the restrikes, the tip points to the back-end of the 'D'.
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