Tetradrachm - Philippus I ΔΗΜΑΡΧ ΕΞΟΥСΙΑС ΥΠΑ ΤΟ Δ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΙΑ SC; Antioch

Tetradrachm - Philippus I (ΔΗΜΑΡΧ ΕΞΟΥСΙΑС ΥΠΑ ΤΟ Δ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΙΑ SC; Antioch) - obverseTetradrachm - Philippus I (ΔΗΜΑΡΧ ΕΞΟΥСΙΑС ΥΠΑ ΤΟ Δ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΙΑ SC; Antioch) - reverse

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Features

Issuer Antioch on the Orontes (Syria Coele)
Emperor Philip I (Marcus Iulius Philippus) (244-249)
Type Standard circulation coin
Years 248-249
Value Tetradrachm (4)
Composition Silver
Weight 12.19 g
Diameter 28 mm
Shape Round (irregular)
Technique Hammered
Orientation Coin alignment ↑↓
Demonetized Yes
Number
N#
74067
References RPC Online VIII# 29015,
Roman Provincial Coinage (https://rpc.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/)
Prieur# 444,
Michel Prieur, Karin Prieur; 2000. A Type Corpus of the Syro-Phoenician Tetradrachms and Their Fractions from 57 BC to AD 253. Classical Numismatic Group, Lancaster, Pennsylvania, United States.
McAlee# 935
Richard McAlee; 2007. The coins of Roman Antioch. Classical Numismatic Group, Lancaster, United States of America.
And 2 more volumes.

Obverse

Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Philip I, right, seen from front, sometimes with left arm of cuirass raised

Lettering: ΑΥΤΟΚ Κ Μ ΙΟΥΛΙ ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟС СΕΒ

Reverse

Eagle standing left, spreading wings, holding wreath in beak

Lettering:
ΔΗΜΑΡΧ ΕΞΟΥСΙΑС ΥΠΑ ΤΟ Δ
ΑΝΤΙΟΧΙΑ
SC

Mint

Antioch on the Orontes, Syria, modern-day Antakya, Turkey

Comments

Since the publication of Le Prieur, type 438 has been split into two groups: 438, with a bust where the pterygia on the left are not visible, and 438A, where they are more or less visible.
In Antioch, there are a great many mintages dated to the fourth consulship of Philip the Arab, of which we find no trace in Rome. It is extremely regrettable that the little information we have on the Senate of Antioch is much later (4th and 5th centuries), as tetradrachm issues suggest that not only did the Senate of Antioch demonstrate its independence from Rome by minting silver with the titulation "SC / ANTIOXIA", but also that it had its own imperial count under Philip.
Such is the wealth of bust variants for issues circulating in Antioch that some, such as Jean-Marc Doyen, have considered the East to have been, in terms of monetary busts, the laboratory from which the West was to draw inspiration.
Indeed, from Caracalla to Philip, there were numerous variations of busts with attributes, and, contrary to Roman practice, which reserved them for donativa or prestige issues, they were clearly intended for circulation.
It was not until much later, thirty years later, that Rome enriched its repertoire of busts. Was it the persistence of an artistic superiority of the Hellenistic East over the Roman West, four centuries after the conquest of Greece? Was the concern for propaganda exacerbated on the Empire's frontier, but less pronounced in the capital? Was the influence of Semitic emperors preoccupied with their local brand image among the populations from which they came? Oriental concern for form rather than substance? Free and competing engravers in Antioch, slaves and unmotivated in Rome? We don't know, but the fact remains that the evidence is indisputable.
As soon as Philip II was proclaimed august, he continued to use his father's titles on the reverse, but also adopted his title by right. The rule is simple: the father always has a wrinkle on his forehead, the son always a smooth forehead.
Note that sigmas are engraved in C.
The TSP database maintained by Michel Prieur now lists forty-six examples of this type, including six in museums (ANS, two at Yale, British Museum, Berne and Oxford, ex Rauch 40 sale (January 1988), no. 526).Automatically translated

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Date VG F VF XF AU UNC
ND (248-249)  Antioch, Syria

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