The Colony of Southern Rhodesia, was a self-governing British Crown colony in southern Africa, later known as Rhodesia and today as Zimbabwe. During that time, the capital has remained the same, Salisbury, later changing its name to Harare. The colony was established on 1 October 1923, after it was annexed by the Crown on 12 September 1923. Up to this time, it was administered by the British South Africa Company. In 1953, it was merged into the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland, which lasted until 1963. Southern Rhodesia then remained a British colony until 1980. During this time the white-minority government issued a Unilateral Declaration of Independence (UDI) in 1965 and established Rhodesia, an unrecognized state. This changed in 1979 as it was reconstituted under indigenous African rule as Zimbabwe Rhodesia, which also failed. The British took interim control following the Lancaster House Agreement in December 1979, after which the country was granted internationally recognized independence as Zimbabwe on 18 April 1980. The first coins were issued in 1934 with only the nickel and silver coins showing the Bust of the British Monarch, and the half and one penny coins only the title. This currency mirrored the English Pound Sterling system with 12 Pennies to the Shilling and 20 Shillings to the Pound. The last coins were issued in 1952, before merging into Rhodesia Nyasaland. The name Rhodesia comes from Cecil John Rhodes and was given by Queen Victoria in honor of him. Up to that time, it was referred to as South Zambezia. It comprised 372,518 km² (143,830 square miles).
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