Rhodesia and Nyasaland, officially the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland, was a federation of three territories in southern Africa. the colony of Southern Rhodesia (now Rhodesia, and now Zimbabwe), the British protectorate of Northern Rhodesia (now Zambia), and that of Nyasaland (now Malawi). The Federation was created on August 1, 1953 and officially held until December 31, 1963. Governed by the Governor General as the Queen's representative, the federation failed under the pressure of African nations seeking self-government and the end of colonization. Sterling-based coins were issued for the first time in 1955 and, although the Federation ended in 1963, some coins continued to be issued in 1964. The monetary system gave a value of 12 Penny for a Shilling and 20 Shillings for a Pound, mirroring the British system. All silver and nickel coins represent the bust of Queen Elizabeth II, with the half and 1 penny showing only her title. This landlocked territory covered 1,261,674 km² (487,135 square miles) and had the capital Salisbury (now Harare), with an estimated population of 8.3 million in 1960.
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