Due to the erosion of royal power in the 10th century, some mints were taken over by local lords, secular or ecclesiastical. When Hugh Capet arrived on the throne, he mastered the minting only on the royal domain, around Paris and Orleans. Elsewhere, the right of minting is possessed by various political powers: at the level of the duchy, for example in Normandy, or at the level of local lords, such as the lords of Bourbon in Auvergne. The monetary types are nevertheless stable: the lords do not dare to change an existing type in order to preserve trust. The royal monograms in particular (that of Charles the Bald or Louis IV Transmarinus) are still minted until the end of the 12th century. But with the multiplication of these immobilized types, it happens that the engravers lose the understanding and we observe progressive degenerations of the types and legends. For two centuries, the successors of Hugh Capet enlarged the royal domain and gradually imposed the pre-eminence of royal coinage. During the 13th century, the kings of France, in particular Saint Louis and Philip the Fair, legislated to limit the circulation of feudal coins that gradually disappeared until the first half of the 14th century. The end of the Hundred Years’ War made it possible to establish a stable royal coinage and the policy of Louis XI established even more clearly the monetary hold of the king over the whole kingdom. After the introduction at the end of the 15th century of precious metals from America and the Italian art of the medal, only a few large families and exceptional enclaves within the kingdom still benefit from their own mint. The king became the undisputed master of money.
The Numista referee for coins of this issuer is Compendium.
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