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World Coins Chat: China - Ancient & Empire

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CassTaylor
Joined: 30-May-2014
Posts: 8005
A while back jokinen did a general WCC for China, encompassing summaries of the late Empire (Qing dynasty), Republican era and People's Republic. This WCC is a more in-depth look at the multitudes of coinages used under the Chinese imperial dynasties.

China - Empire in Numista is used to refer to the various dynasties of the Chinese "Celestial Empire" from the Tang Dynasty (608-906 AD) until the last imperial dynasty, the Qing (1644-1912). The territories of the various dynasties vary greatly, but most span the general eastern, populated area of what is today the People's Republic of China. Dynasties from before the Tang are classified under China - Ancient in Numista.


(left) European-style official flag of the Qing Dynasty, in use 1889-1912, (right) Imperial seal of the Qing; other dynasties' seals differed

History

China is one of the world's oldest civilisations; the first civilisations in the Yellow and Yangtze Rivers date back to more than 5000 years ago, as old as, and perhaps even predating the civilisations in Mesopotamia, the Indus Valley and Egypt. The fertile regions in eastern China allowed for rice crops to be plentiful, a crop that allowed for large population growth; China is the most populous country in the world even today. The first recorded dynasty was the Xia (夏, approx. 2070-1600 BC) which remains shrouded in mystery to modern historians who debate the existence of it's founders and rulers. It was succeeded by the Shang (商, approx. 1600-1046 BC), the first dynasty with solid archaeological evidence to support historical claims, and then by the Zhou (周, 1046-256 BC) which saw a centralisation of authority by the ruling dynasty which had been divided into the Western and Eastern Zhou (division was a common theme in multiple dynasties). This period also saw the emergence of the "Mandate of Heaven", a supposedly "divine" justification of the ruling dynasty's status.


Map of the Warring States period; with the Qin state highlighted in red, which would later take over the other states and assume the "Mandate of Heaven" in 221 BC.

In the final days of the Zhou dynasty, the centralised authority collapsed into the Warring States period, of which the Qin (秦, 221-206 BC) eventually emerged victorious and "reunited" China, claiming the Mandate of Heaven under the Emperor Qin Shi Huangdi, the first "emperor" of a unified "China". He famously began the construction of projects like the Great Wall and the Terracotta Army, but the Qin dynasty was short-lived and collapsed with the emergence of the rebel-led Han (漢, 202 BC-220 AD), which like the Zhou, split into various parts then reunified around 0 AD. This was the first time when China supposedly had indirect contact with the West in the Roman Empire via trade. By 220 AD, the warring factions within the Han had led to it's dissolution and the beginning of another "Warring States" period, known as the "Three Kingdoms". China was again "reunified" under the Jin (晉, 265-420 AD), which in it's waning years again dissolved into civil war (notice a theme?) which eventually simplified down to Northern and Southern dynasties, reunified as the Sui (隋, 581-608 AD) and ended the frequent raids from northern "barbarians" such as the Huns.


Map of the Tang Dynasty; note it's territory outside "China proper" (Turkestan), part of the Silk Road, an infamous trade route from East Asia to the Arabic world and Europe.

The Sui was usurped by the Tang (唐, 618-907 AD), which is often seem by historians as a turning point in China's history; it is the point at which Numista begins documenting China - Empire coins. Apart from a brief interruption when the Empress Wu Zetian (the only female emperor) reigned, the Tang's prosperity and longevity was almost unprecedented in comparison to earlier centuries of division and reunification; trade with the Islamic world flourished at the height of the Silk Road as China expanded outside China proper for the first time. Another era of civil war literally called the "Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms" followed, until one, the Song (宋, 960-1279) led a reunification of China, ending the last period of serious internal division in Imperial history. The Song led a campaign to pacify the Jin peoples in the north, but by the 13th century a more serious threat, the Mongols, unified under Genghis Khan swept into China and overthrew the Song, establishing the Yuan (元, 1271-1368) which was ruled by Kublai Khan, part of the vast Mongol Empire that stretched all the way to the borders of Poland and Hungary. Under the Yuan, China's borders stretched farther than ever before; ironically under a non-Chinese dynasty, and was famously visited by Venetian explorer Marco Polo. However, as the Mongol Empire fractured, the Yuan declined in power and eventually factions began fighting for power over the lands of the crumbling Yuan dynasty.


The Mongol Empire at it's height in 1294; the Yuan dynasty part is in yellow. The other parts of the Mongol Empire were relatively unaffiliated with the Yuan.

The Ming (明, 1368-1644) seized power and burned Kublai Khan's famous palace of Xanadu to the ground, re-establishing a Chinese-led dynasty. The Ming has been called the most prosperous and peaceful period in China's Imperial history, with arts and commerce flourishing; in the 15th century famed Chinese admiral Zheng He led naval expeditions as far as East Africa. After a period of internal instability, the Ming stopped funding these voyages and became more isolationist, preferring to expand it's power closer to home in wars with Joseon (Korea) and Japan. The later Ming also coincided with the European Age of Discovery, with Portuguese traders setting up a base at Macau, near Canton in 1557, and the Spanish and Dutch doing so on Formosa (Taiwan). However, with peasant revolts and famines in the 17th century, northern Manchu tribesmen, unified under Nurhaci as the Qing, began a campaign to take over the weakened Ming, establishing the Qing (清, 1644-1912) and eliminating the last pockets of Ming resistance by 1662, forcing them to flee to Formosa, with their final defeat there in 1681 as the Manchus consolidated their hold over China proper, now again under a non-Chinese dynasty. Under the Kangxi and Qianlong Emperors, the Qing expanded it's empire in the early 18th century into Xinjiang, Tibet, and subjugated Dai Nam, Joseon and central Asian khanates as tributaries.


The Qing Empire in 1820, at it's nominal zenith; yellow is for "China proper", lighter yellow for Qing provinces, and orange for Qing tributary states.

Meanwhile in Enlightenment era Europe, a craze for East Asian tea, silks and porcelain (Chinoiserie) and the rise of mercantile capitalism meant increased demand for Chinese products, which was hampered by the Qing's isolationism and reluctance to allow European merchants direct access to its ports. Trade with Europe was limited to the port of Canton, with local merchants (Cohong), and efforts by the British Macartney mission in 1793 to negotiate trade facilitation came to nothing. Chinese self-sufficiency meant merchants accepted only silver, not European goods for payment, to the extent that a trade imbalance and silver drain became serious problems to British merchants (of the East India Company) in particular. By the 1820s, a produce of British India, opium had begun flowing into China as a consumer product; the combined addictive properties and trade imbalance now in favour of the EIC concerned the Qing, and in 1839 British opium was seized and destroyed by Chinese officials. The resulting diplomatic incident caused the First Opium War (1839-42), fought in the name of opening China to free trade by force but condemned by many as the British government's endorsement of opium traders. An industrialised, modern British fleet highlighted how China had fallen so far behind Europe, as British cannons blasted junks out of the water.


Depiction of a steamer of the East India Company firing on and destroying Chinese war junks in the First Opium War.

The resulting Treaty of Nanjing (1842) gave Britain Hong Kong; it opened Chinese ports to European traders, and set a precedent for European powers to coerce the Qing into "unequal treaties", beginning a so called "Century of Humiliation" for China. By the mid-19th century unrest in the peasantry had grown to the extent that the Taiping Rebellion (1851-64) led by Hong Xiquan seriously threatened the Qing, and was barely put down with European assistance. Incidents with European personnel in China led to the Second Opium War (1856-60), again resulting in Chinese defeats, with Anglo-French forces taking Peking and burning the Summer Palace. The Russian Empire also extended it's dominion in Asia with the Peking Convention (1860), which gave Outer Manchuria to Russia. In the following years, the Qing would suffer Muslim rebellions in Xinjiang, and further encroachment by European powers such as in the Sino-French War (1884-5) which ended Qing influence in Indochina. The rise of Japan, considered a tributary for centuries by China, as a modern, Westernised power led to confrontations in 1874 over Formosa and the Ryukyu Islands, and eventually to China's military humiliation at Japan's hands over Korean suzerainty and the cession of Formosa in the Sino-Japanese War (1894-5).


French political cartoon from 1898 satirising the "Scramble for Concessions" by European colonial powers and Japan as "China" looks on helplessly.

In 1897-8, European powers, taking advantage of a China weakened by its recent war with Japan carved spheres of influence in the interior of the declining Qing Empire, establishing treaty ports such as Kiauschou (Germany), Kwangchowan (France) and Port Arthur (Russia) as well as legations in cities like Tientsin and Peking. The Guangxu Emperor tried to conduct his "Hundred Days' Reform" in vain, as a coup d'état by conservative, reactionary elements in the Qing court opposed to Westernisation (such as the Dowager Empress Cixi) thwarted efforts to modernise the Chinese army and navy. These same reactionaries pledged their support to anti-foreign groups like the Boxers, who in 1900 besieged the foreign legations in Peking, resulting in the Qing's disastrous war against the Eight-Nation Alliance, which relieved the legations and forced the Qing court to pay huge indemnities. In the last decade of it's existence, the Qing, once the hegemonial power in East Asia, was now relegated to the "Sick Man of Asia", as foreign conflicts (e.g. the Russo-Japanese War) were fought on it's sovereign territory. The "Late Qing" reform efforts came too little too late; when the infant Puyi came to the throne in 1908, dozens of uprisings occurred by disgruntled student intellectuals against the Qing, and one of them, the Wuchang Uprising (1911) succeeded in sparking the wider Xinhai Revolution; the following year, Puyi's regent signed the instrument of his abdication, ending thousands of years of Imperial rule in China.




Coinage

China's first "coinage" existed in the forms of cowry shells and other items; by the time of the Zhou dynasty cast bronze spade and knife money were very common and were sometimes melted down after being traded and recast into actual knives or spades for use. Coinage in the form of round holed metal discs began appearing around the 4th century BC; they were often cast in bronze by plural amounts in the early years of use, and very common by the time the Qin state gained prominence amongst the warring states around 250 BC, which is when the first such cash coin listings appear in Numista; earlier Chinese coins usually have cruder inscriptions and shapes (compared to how characters on coins of later dynasties), as well as larger square holes (sometimes with perimeters almost reaching the rim) compared to the diameter of the coin itself.


(left) Knife money; (centre) Spade money; (right) a coin from the Han Dynasty, bearing a crude early iteration of the Chinese characters for "五" (5) and "錢" (Cash/Zhu). Chinese is usually read right to left, or up to down.

Fewer varieties of coins were made during the turbulent years in the middle of the 1st millennium, with Chinese dynasties constantly rising and falling apart into civil war, but the basic design of the cash coin remained unchanged throughout the centuries for well over 2000 years. Chinese tributaries also adopted currencies based on Chinese cash, such as the Japanese mon, or Vietnamese van. The most common method of making coins was via casting, usually brass, copper or bronze, but occasionally more valuable, high denomination cash coins were made of silver and gold in the later dynasties; these coins are often very rare, since larger amounts of money in the form of precious metals were usually transported in the form of sycees, or yuanbao until the Qing. From at least the Tang dynasty, it became common practice to thread stacks of 100 or 1000 cash coins together and to exchange those in transactions, with some coins occasionally taken out for smaller payments. Later on, coin collectors would search these strings for older and rarer coins and take them out much like how modern collectors might search bank rolls.


(left) A sycee ingot also known as yuanbao usually with stamps, not in Numista; (centre) Example of a Song dynasty copper coin; most common cash coins are denominated as 1 cash, with diameters of around 24mm; many cash coins from the Tang onwards have "寶通" (tongbao) along with the ruler's regnal name on them; (right) a 19th century photograph of coin strings. 1000 Cash made 1 Tael, with 100 a Mace and 10 a Candareen.

With the arrival of European traders in the Ming dynasty, much trade conducted with the Portuguese, Dutch and Spanish revolved around silver until the late 19th century. The Qing in particular only accepted silver payment for goods, as European goods were of little desire by China; the "silver drain" that resulted meant that at one point, over half of the silver mined in the Spanish New World ended up in China, usually 8 reales coins that would be chop-marked repeatedly by merchants; this practice continued in the 19th century with Mexican reales/pesos, American and British trade dollars, and to a lesser extent the French Indochinese piastre and Japanese trade yen.


(left) US Trade Dollar, heavily countermarked; (centre) Chinese "Old Man" dollar, issued to pay soldiers in the mid 19th century, heavily countermarked; (right) My own example of a Spanish 8 reales coin bearing Chinese countermarks.

In 1889, the Yuan was introduced as a Westernised, modern currency unit, with machine-struck coins. It was at par with the Mexican peso, and for a while these were struck at the Kwangtung mint with similar dimensions to many European currencies, thus being easily convertible. They were quite commonly denominated in old Cash units, however, with indications like "3.6 Candareens" or "1 Mace 4.4 Candareens" or "10 Cash". Most of the 18 provinces of the Qing Empire issued Yuan coinage of their own bearing the province name and sometimes provincial mintmarks, with the furthest reaches of the Empire (such as Xinjiang and Tibet) issuing their own coinage and denominations (Miscals, etc.). Cash coins were still circulating alongside these, usually in more rural areas, and cash coins (sometimes machine struck) were struck up until 1912.


(left), (centre) Example of a 1 Yuan (7 Mace 2 Candareens) coin from Kwangtung province, obverse and reverse; the dragon motif is very common. (right) a 10 Cash copper coin by a provincial mint (Hupeh).

https://en.numista.com/catalogue/ancient-china-1.html
https://en.numista.com/catalogue/chine_empire-1.html
une franglaise; ♪ je brosse ma chevelure ♫
CassTaylor
Joined: 30-May-2014
Posts: 8005
Just a few observations from my collecting of Chinese Empire coins;

1. As others have already said, China is a big source for modern fakes of old coins, both Chinese and foreign; so it would make sense to be careful where you put your money, especially when buying first time- I've also purchased a fake (dragon dollar) or two back when I was a beginner, and as others have also reported, some forgers in China have gone as far as to forge coin holders, so if it's in one check the company's registry (if applicable).

2. The above isn't necessarily applicable to big crownsize Chinese coins; I've seen fakes of smaller silver issues, cash coins and even of copper coins. My opinion is that it's better to err on the safe side when buying Chinese coins (for that matter, any commonly faked coin you're not sure about) and unless you're absolutely sure, to overpay for the real deal than getting a "bargain" on what turns out to be a fake. Otherwise you take risks into your own hands.

3. Finally, cash coins are also commonly faked, usually for good luck charms/decorations in China today; despite being cast, modern fake cash coins are generally easy to tell apart from the characters on their design, and if their fields and lettering seem too perfect. I myself avoided earlier cash issues for the longest time but I'm now including them in my collection.
une franglaise; ♪ je brosse ma chevelure ♫
jokinen
Joined: 10-Feb-2013
Posts: 1711
Is there any pattern in those cash coins? I really cannot tell any apart.
CassTaylor
Joined: 30-May-2014
Posts: 8005
@jokinen The vast majority of Chinese cash coins (1 Cash coins, anyhow) have four characters on the obverse; the top and bottom ones are the regnal name of the Emperor whose name it was issued in, and the left and right ones are almost always "tongbao" (通寶), meaning something like"circulation money". "Tongbao" has appeared on almost all cash coins since the Tang dynasty.

For example this coin (from my collection):


寶 通


"光绪" is for Emperor Guangxu (1875-1908), while "寶 通" (read right to left) indicates it's legal tender. Chinese is read up to down and right to left (at least in most sources I've seen until the mid/late 20th century).

Cash coins' reverses are usually blank, though a denomination or "mintmark" character may appear; for Qing coins sometimes the Emperor's name in Manchu script is located there.

Chinese culture is fascinating, and the written language is very complicated (I've spent so many hours picking out Chinese characters for coin pages, and sometimes I can hardly tell the difference between two characters). The pre-19th century history is pretty complicated too, and I pat myself on the back for having shrunk 3000+ years of dynastic history into four paragraphs- It was very interesting researching the earlier ones, though.
une franglaise; ♪ je brosse ma chevelure ♫
SquareRootLolly
Joined: 7-Oct-2017
Posts: 880
A marvellous and extremely well done summary of Chinese history. I read it quickly, so if I am wrong, correct me, but:

- You should mention the unification of coinage during the Qin dynasty.
- You should mention Han as significantly as Tang since those were the two most important dynasties during Chinese history
- Mention the Silk Road's start during Han dynasty since Zhang Qian created it
- The raids did not end, they just became less frequent

Thank you for the article.
Reason has always existed, but not always in a reasonable form.
CassTaylor
Joined: 30-May-2014
Posts: 8005
@SRL Thanks!
I was under the impression that the Tang and Ming were the "best" Chinese dynasties. I'm fairly sure I mentioned at least a few of those in my original draft, but had to cut them out for brevity's sake... good thing you posted them here too! Some rectifications have been made. :`

+ One more thing;
A common characteristic in fake Chinese coins (especially silver Yuan issues) is a discrepancy between province names in Chinese and English on both sides. I've come across so many fakes such as this one with one province's name on the obverse "新疆" (Xinjiang), and "KWANG-TUNG PROVINCE" on the reverse. Taking the time to learn the Chinese provinces' names is a great advantage when it comes to spotting obvious errors like these.
une franglaise; ♪ je brosse ma chevelure ♫
SquareRootLolly
Joined: 7-Oct-2017
Posts: 880


As you see, from the demographics chart, 10% are others (like Zhuang, Hui, Miao and Uyghur people) but most of our people are Han (族). We take pride in calling ourselves Han people because it is one of our flourishing dynasty in our history. Our letters, other than being called Chinese letters (中文), we also call them Hanzi (Kanji if you are Japanese)(字).


From the picture above, you can see Chinatown behind in Sacramento. In Chinese, we call foreign Chinese communities gathered as Tangrenjie (人街) - since it relates to what we call ourselves, the Tang people.

Sidenote: Actually, the environment in Ming was better than Han and Tang and maybe even Qing. But, the cultural influences to the foreign world of Han and Tang was so significant to a global level that it underrated Ming. During Ming, there was no need to combat foreign invaders, unlike Han and Tang.

SRL
Reason has always existed, but not always in a reasonable form.
Choucas
Joined: 21-Jun-2017
Posts: 1691
Very nice summary, thank you Cass.
I am myself interested in imperial and ancient cash coins even if I'm still a early beginner. I have enormous lack in chinese history and coinage. I'm stil amazed that one year ago I knew close to nothing about chinese history.

What I found marvelous with these coins is that you can get a 2000 year old coin in nice grade for 1 or 2$. I am also fascinated by the different and lovely tonings and patinas a cash coin may get. I especially like the northern song cash coins. I keep collecting cheap and common coins because of the many fakes and that chinese coins is not my area of collecting.

I read your discussion about which dinasty was "better". I also read that Northern Song dinasty was quite flourishing, is that right?
CassTaylor
Joined: 30-May-2014
Posts: 8005
My pleasure! :wiz: Stay tuned for China-Republic, coming soon. I'll try get it done before I head to Spain next week.

Your feelings about the cash coins are very relatable, I'm also a recent beginner in collecting these coins. I was skeptical about how to tell the difference for a long time, but as long as it shows some signs of its age and "roughness" I'm happy to buy for a low price too!

And about the dynasties, Eurocentric reading sources means I'm unfortunately not too familiar with Imperial Chinese history before the turn of the 19th century, although I certainly think that the Qing in the 18th century seemed pretty good too; this was before internal peasant rebellions destroyed the façade of their glory.
une franglaise; ♪ je brosse ma chevelure ♫
7doktor
Joined: 25-Jul-2013
Posts: 47
Quote: "Choucas"​Very nice summary, thank you Cass.
​I am myself interested in imperial and ancient cash coins even if I'm still a early beginner. I have enormous lack in chinese history and coinage. I'm stil amazed that one year ago I knew close to nothing about chinese history.

​What I found marvelous with these coins is that you can get a 2000 year old coin in nice grade for 1 or 2$. I am also fascinated by the different and lovely tonings and patinas a cash coin may get. I especially like the northern song cash coins. I keep collecting cheap and common coins because of the many fakes and that chinese coins is not my area of collecting.

​I read your discussion about which dinasty was "better". I also read that Northern Song dinasty was quite flourishing, is that right?
​ You will be surprised much more when you find out that the whole supposedly ancient history of China is at least until the 15th century AD. - total fake.:wiz: The age of еastern civilization is about the same as that of the western one. The "vast antiquity of China" is a myth, a remake, just like the Great Wall for example, which began construction in the second half of the 17th century (although large-scale works on its construction were conducted under Mao Zedong). To make sure of this, do not even have to go to China - Google apps, the Internet and other joys of progress to help you.
With today's level of access to information, sources, facts, здесь нам втирают какую-то дичь from wikipedia, and other people still seriously believe in fairy tales about supposedly "ancient China, Egypt, Rome etc."
And collecting "ancient Chinese 2000 year old coin in nice grade for 1 or 2$" - imho it's a beyond:)
Choucas
Joined: 21-Jun-2017
Posts: 1691
Well, I guess I'm ready to believe you if you get me better arguments that the one I read. I'm not even sure : are you saying that roman, chinese, egyptian civilizations are supposedly "fake news"?
In both cases, I must have missed something about your message lol.
CassTaylor
Joined: 30-May-2014
Posts: 8005
Quote: "Choucas"​Well, I guess I'm ready to believe you if you get me better arguments that the one I read. I'm not even sure : are you saying that roman, chinese, egyptian civilizations are supposedly "fake news"?
​In both cases, I must have missed something about your message lol.
​Yeah, I think we all missed a lot of that message, lol :D
une franglaise; ♪ je brosse ma chevelure ♫
SquareRootLolly
Joined: 7-Oct-2017
Posts: 880
Quote: "CassTaylor"
Quote: "Choucas"​Well, I guess I'm ready to believe you if you get me better arguments that the one I read. I'm not even sure : are you saying that roman, chinese, egyptian civilizations are supposedly "fake news"?
​​In both cases, I must have missed something about your message lol.
​​Yeah, I think we all missed a lot of that message, lol :D
​Also, there is a rumour that the Xia dynasty is Ancient Egypt. It says in the Xia book that "the river flows south from nine mouths", but we know the Yellow and the Yangtze River flows from the east to west. Nile has nine mouths near Mediterranean Sea.
Reason has always existed, but not always in a reasonable form.
CassTaylor
Joined: 30-May-2014
Posts: 8005
Quote: "SquareRootLolly"
Quote: "CassTaylor"

Quote: "Choucas"​Well, I guess I'm ready to believe you if you get me better arguments that the one I read. I'm not even sure : are you saying that roman, chinese, egyptian civilizations are supposedly "fake news"?
​​​In both cases, I must have missed something about your message lol.
​​​Yeah, I think we all missed a lot of that message, lol :D
​​Also, there is a rumour that the Xia dynasty is Ancient Egypt. It says in the Xia book that "the river flows south from nine mouths", but we know the Yellow and the Yangtze River flows from the east to west. Nile has nine mouths near Mediterranean Sea.
​Yeah, I read up on that; they also exist around the same time, the big problem is how people in Shang/Zhou dynasty China had any knowledge of contemporary Nile civilisations?
http://foreignpolicy.com/2016/09/02/did-chinese-civilization-come-from-ancient-egypt-archeological-debate-at-heart-of-china-national-identity/

@7doktor Do you also believe that conspiracy theory about how the history of those 300 or so years between 614 and 911 AD didn't exist? T.T:O
une franglaise; ♪ je brosse ma chevelure ♫
7doktor
Joined: 25-Jul-2013
Posts: 47
Quote: "CassTaylor"​​
​@7doktor Do you also believe that conspiracy theory about how the history of those 300 or so years between 614 and 911 AD didn't exist? T.T:O




I do not read wikipedia and no T.T.
But science: mathematics, astronomy, linguistic analysis and work with historical sources. Russian scientists 19-20 centuries Morozov, Fomenko, Nosovsky and other chewed all and put in your mouth. Use !
CassTaylor
Joined: 30-May-2014
Posts: 8005
So basically everything in Chinese history before the 15th century was made up? And any coins and artefacts that date from before then were made by people who were in on the whole thing? And persons like Genghis Khan, Confucius were all made up? Well then, that sure is one hell of a fanfic the Chinese made up for their pre 1400s history! :O

I'm not gonna argue with you, but I am genuinely curious to see what you believe about that.
une franglaise; ♪ je brosse ma chevelure ♫
Choucas
Joined: 21-Jun-2017
Posts: 1691
I'm a bit (very) skeptical about all this, lol. It makes me think of the french "Réalisme fantastique" whose purpose was to tell an alternative history. Funny stories to read but that stops there.

I'm not actually the kind of person that easily believe what History tells me and I also try to have a different point of view but here it is a bit too much. I don't even feel the need to begin to argue about this theory. Moreover, it's not the point of the topic. Maybe you will say that it is because I have no arguments. :°

But if you are happy with this, I'm happy for you. :`
CassTaylor
Joined: 30-May-2014
Posts: 8005
For anyone actually interested in Chinese history and not stupid conspiracy theories, a favourite history Youtube channel of mine recently uploaded a similar condensed history of China's thousands of years of development, that provides also a bit more detail on dynastic shifts than my own condensation.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YP1qjTzxQNE
une franglaise; ♪ je brosse ma chevelure ♫
thnba
Joined: 16-Jan-2019
Posts: 31
这个网站不知有多少中国人来过,我认为这里比脸书或其它地方更难以交流,如果有人要关于中国古币的相关信息,我想我可提供一些,因为我查资料会相对熟悉。
jokinen
Joined: 10-Feb-2013
Posts: 1711
Quote: "thnba"​这个网站不知有多少中国人来过,我认为这里比脸书或其它地方更难以交流,如果有人要关于中国古币的相关信息,我想我可提供一些,因为我查资料会相对熟悉。
​Translation for westerners:

I don't know how many Chinese people have come to this website. I think it is more difficult to communicate than Facebook or other places. If anyone wants information about Chinese ancient coins, I think I can provide some because I will be familiar with the information.

---------------------------

Thanks for joining. If you have some suggestions or fun facts about Chinese coins please share!

谢谢

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