How it works
Along its history, Iran used several calendars for its coins. Until 1932, the date was given in the Islamic calendar. Since then, the date is given in the Parsian calendar. From 1976 to 1978, the Imperial Persian calendar was briefly used.
Afghanistan also used the Persian calendar for its coins from 1919 to 1927 and from 1932 to 1973.
Both Persian calendars are lunar calendars. New years occurs at sprig equinox. In the Persian calendar, years are counted beginning with Hijra in 622, whereas the Imperial variant counts years beginning with the birth of the Persian Empire founder, Cyrus the Great, in 559 BC.
On the opposite examples, you'll see:
- one coin dated ۱۳۵۸ (1358) in the Persian calendar, that is 1979-1980
- one coin dated ۲۵۳۵ (2535) in the Imperial Persian calendar, that is 1976-1977
Learn to read a date in the Persian calendarThe Persian calendar starts in 622, the day of Hijra, which is the day the Islamic prophet Muhammad quited Mecca and went to Medina. Each new year occurs at the Spring equinox, usually March 21. Add 621 to the date given in the Persian calendar and you'll get the Gregorian.
For instance, Persian year 1368 began at the Spring equinox in 1358 + 621, i.e. March 21, 1979. It ended the day before the Spring equinox of the following year, i.e. March 20, 1980.
The Imperail Persian calendar is very similar. The only difference is its starting point, which is the birth in 559 BC of Cyrus II, the Persian Empire founder, also known as Cyrus the Great. To convert, instead of adding 621, you'll have to subtract 559.
For instance, year 2535 of the Imperial Persian calendar began at the Spring equinox in 2535 − 559, i.e. March 21, 1976. It ended the day before the Spring equinox of the following yer, i.e. March 20, 1977.
Year readingWriting years is to be proceed the same way as in English. Only the design of numerals changes. Moreover, Iranian people have a specific design for some figures (1st line) in comparison with the rest of the Arab world.